Kidneys are two bean-shaped organs, each about the size of a fist. Kidneys filter excess waste and blood from the blood and produce urine, processing about half a cup of blood every minute, according to the National Institutes of Health.
Kidney disease can be acute or chronic. Acute kidney injury is a temporary condition, often triggered by an illness or injury, which disrupts kidney function. Chronic kidney disease, on the other hand, involves permanent damage to the kidneys and can lead to lasting impairment of kidney function, as noted by Kidney Health Australia.
Examples of short-term kidney injuries are interstitial nephritis, a condition that arises when certain medications impede the kidneys’ capabilities, and pyelonephritis, caused by a urinary tract infection that ascended to the kidneys.
Chronic kidney disease includes conditions that progressively impair kidney function. Polycystic kidney disease, a hereditary disorder, causes cysts that disrupt kidney filtration, potentially worsening over time. Lupus nephritis, an autoimmune disease, leads to permanent kidney damage through scarring, as detailed by WebMD.